A Hosah Scientific-Cultural Theology of Sacred Air

Science, Simalungun Culture, and Christianity in Constructive Trialogue


  • Parulihan Sipayung Biro Penelitian dan Pengembangan Gereja Kristen Protestan Simalungun (GKPS)




hosah, myth, trialogical method, constructive theology, Simalungun, air, Holy Spirit, science


This study aims to develop a constructive theology of hosah through an interdisciplinary approach. The research involves a scientific understanding of air, the Simalungun cultural concept of hosah, and Christian theology of the Holy Spirit. It employs a trialogical method consisting of two stages, namely, descriptive-comparative and normative-constructive. The first stage explains the concepts of air, hosah, and Spirit from scientific, cultural, and theological perspectives, respectively. The second stage focuses on constructing a theology of hosah. The results of this trialogue critically analyze, enrich, and revise these concepts. Overall, the study concludes that air is more than just a gaseous compound; it is a sacred altar of life.


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Author Biography

Parulihan Sipayung, Biro Penelitian dan Pengembangan Gereja Kristen Protestan Simalungun (GKPS)

Parulihan Sipayung is an ordained minister at the Simalungun Protestant Christian Church (GKPS) since 2015. He served as a missionary to South Korea from 2016 to 2018.  He completed his B.A. in Theological Studies at STT Abdi Sabda Medan (2012), Th.M. (2020), and Ph.D. (2023) at GIT, Yonsei University, South Korea.  His writings have been published in International Handbook on Ecumenical Diaconia (Regnum/Oxford, 2020), International Journal on Asian Christianity (2023), Indonesian Journal of Theology (2015), and other academic journals He also translated and edited several books. He currently works at the Research and Development Bureau of GKPS and teaches part-time at several theological seminaries in North Sumatra.


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How to Cite

Sipayung, P. (2023). A Hosah Scientific-Cultural Theology of Sacred Air: Science, Simalungun Culture, and Christianity in Constructive Trialogue. Indonesian Journal of Theology, 11(2), 295-313. https://doi.org/10.46567/ijt.v11i2.362