Indonesian Journal of Theology 2023-12-26T13:44:13+00:00 Hans A. Harmakaputra Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;">Indonesian Journal of Theology (<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">E-ISSN: 2339-0751</a>) is a theological journal published by Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia (Indonesian Theologian Association). It is established to enhance theological discourse among theologians across denominations and faith traditions, particularly in the Indonesian context. We also aim to contribute to the wider academic theological discourse in today's world Christianity, especially in the Asian context, by publishing the works of authors from all over the world. We welcome contributions from scholars of theological studies, religious studies, and other related fields. </p> <p style="text-align: justify;">IJT is accessible in two different languages: English and Bahasa Indonesia. Please select one of the languages through the menu on the right. <br /><br /><em>Untuk mengakses IJT dalam <strong>Bahasa Indonesia</strong>, pilih Bahasa Indonesia di pilihan <strong>Language</strong> di sebelah kanan.</em></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>ACCREDITATION</strong></p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Indonesian Journal of Theology has been accredited (SINTA 2) by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology, Republic of Indonesia, in accordance with decree number 164/E/KPT/2021.</p> Cultural-Ecological Mission as a Cosmological Dialectic between Aluk Mappurondo and Christianity in Mamasa, West Sulawesi 2023-07-23T23:35:29+00:00 Jefri Andri Saputra Mordekai <p>This research explores the discord of belief between <em>Aluk Mappurondo</em> and Christianity in Mamasa, West Sulawesi, which is evident in residential segregation and the decline of relations between the two religions. As we aim to identify the common ground between them, the study uses a comparative approach to analyze the similarities and differences in the cosmologies of <em>Aluk Mappurondo</em> and Christianity. Despite their differing cosmologies, we find that <em>Aluk Mappurondo</em> and Christianity can coexist by defining and respecting each other's territories. They can also collaborate to uphold ethical values as well as demonstrate shared ecological concern in preserving forests and agricultural land in Mamasa.</p> 2023-12-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Jefri Andri Saputra, Mordekai Evaluating the Relationship between Christianity and Indigenous Religion in the Context of the Christian Evangelical Church in Timor (Gereja Masehi Injili di Timor) 2023-09-09T02:35:48+00:00 Jear Niklas Doming Karniatu Nenohai <p>This article examines the relationship between the Christian Evangelical Church of Timor (Gereja Masehi Injili di Timor, or GMIT) and Indigenous religions. It gives special attention to the Monthly Cultural Liturgy (Liturgi Bulan Budaya, or LBB), which is a contextual theological construct instituted by the GMIT Synod. This research explores the limited efficacy of contextual theology as the approach only aids GMIT members in observing aspects of Indigeneity within the context of Christian worship, while the LBB otherwise rejects Indigenous cultural and religious practices as errant and infidel. Despite incorporation of Indigenous values within an ecclesial milieu, the discriminatory attitudes of GMIT members towards Indigenous communities remain unaddressed within the current prism of contextual theology. Consequently, I aim to improve Christian contextual theology through studying other religions by means of the Indigenous religion paradigm. The goal is to create a more inclusive theology that encourages GMIT members to be more open and accepting of local communities practicing Indigenous religions. Such an amalgamation yields an intersubjective paradigm of contextual theology, the upshot of which makes for a more adaptive LBB that fosters relationships within the scope of GMIT’s ministerial services.</p> 2023-12-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Jear Niklas Doming Karniatu Nenohai A Hosah Scientific-Cultural Theology of Sacred Air 2023-08-08T23:20:40+00:00 Parulihan Sipayung <p>This study aims to develop a constructive theology of <em>hosah</em> through an interdisciplinary approach. The research involves a scientific understanding of air, the Simalungun cultural concept of <em>hosah</em>, and Christian theology of the Holy Spirit. It employs a trialogical method consisting of two stages, namely, descriptive-comparative and normative-constructive. The first stage explains the concepts of air, <em>hosah</em>, and Spirit from scientific, cultural, and theological perspectives, respectively. The second stage focuses on constructing a theology of <em>hosah.</em> The results of this trialogue critically analyze, enrich, and revise these concepts. Overall, the study concludes that air is more than just a gaseous compound; it is a sacred altar of life.</p> 2023-12-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Parulihan Sipayung To Love Nature From Within the Divine Auspices 2023-10-03T17:28:51+00:00 Ricky Atmoko <p>Evangelical Christianity’s concern for nature generally follows a dualistic, utilitarian influence that can be traced back to the thought of Augustine. To escape the trap of dualism, I reinterpret the Augustinian dyad of <em>uti</em> (means or use) and <em>frui</em> (enjoyment or delight) using the Hindu notions of <em>seva</em> (selflessness) and <em>svarupa</em> (true form). In doing so, I construct the posture of loving nature from within the divine auspices—namely, to love creation <em>in the shade of God</em>. I employ the reinterpretative comparative theology methodology of Catherine Cornille, which makes one concept from a given religion more understandable by means of the context of another. First, the Hindu notion of <em>svarupa</em> can transpose the dualistic tendency of <em>frui</em> from being directed “to” the divine auspices of God’s being towards the non-dualistic sense of being “within” the divine shade. As such, <em>svarupa</em> is vital for my reinterpretation of <em>frui</em>. Second, the Hindu notion of <em>seva</em> retrieves the meaning of <em>uti</em> from falling into a utilitarian (or, worse still, consequentialist) mode of relating to nature without love. Likewise, I find <em>seva</em> helpful to inform my reinterpretation of <em>uti</em>. By understanding the Augustinian <em>uti-frui</em> binary through <em>seva</em> and <em>svarupa</em>, I propose to develop a non-dichotomous, non-utilitarian comparative environmental paradigm. Moving beyond a God-nature dualism helps Christians to see God’s love in the material world, just as taking a non-utilitarian view helps us to be concerned with the long-term impact of human actions on nature.</p> 2023-12-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Ricky Atmoko Theologizing Perennial Religious Conversion 2023-09-09T01:21:21+00:00 Aldi Abdillah <p>The phenomenon of religious conversion can incite fear and prejudice against other religions, particularly those exhibiting radical moments and movements. Within the diverse context of Indonesia, the multifaceted yet deeply personal dimensions of such radical religious conversions invite further examination. A prominent historical figure who experienced such a radical religious conversion was Paul the Apostle. This article considers the text of Acts 9:1-19, which narrates his mystical encounter with Jesus while on the way to persecute the primitive Christian community in Damascus. It then moves to consider the mystical notion of <em>Wahdat al-Adyan</em>, or the Unity of Religions, as articulated centuries later by the Sufi mystic, Al-Hallaj (858-922 CE). My aim is to propose a <em>theology of perennial religious conversion</em>, or considering the religious conversion as a mystical, esoteric, and syncretic event. To do this, I adopt a perennialist philosophy as my primary framework for exploring the phenomenon of religious conversion. Informed by one of the religious conversion aspect of the Christian New Testament and mystical Islamic teachings, the multi-faith hermeneutic I construct provides opportunities to understand a given sacred text (Christianity) from the perspective of another religious tradition (Islam), thereby yielding a theology of religious conversion that is deeply relevant given Indonesia’s diversity.</p> 2023-12-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Aldi Abdillah Holy Communion as Inclusive Space of Encounter for People with Disabilities 2023-05-21T02:46:55+00:00 Debbie Tohatta <p>This article considers Holy Communion as a meeting space of meaningful inclusivity for people with disabilities. While God’s initiative extends to all Christians to share together in table fellowship, individuals with disabilities are often less involved in the act of Holy Communion. Given conditions such as blindness, paralysis, and cognitive impairment, these Christians are frequently viewed as objects of compassion. Moreover, disabilities are often perceived in certain cultures as a result of parental or communal sins. Instead of regarding the disabilities of such persons as a symptom of sin, we must recognize that people with disabilities possess gifts bestowed by God for their life’s journey (Nancy L. Eiesland). The church, which is often indifferent to the challenges faced by people with disabilities, suffers from a lack of understanding of Christ’s role in the lives of people with disabilities (Michael S. Beates). As such, cultural values of shame felt by families often cause them to feel embarrassed about bringing their children to church or undergoing the catechetical process for their participating in Holy Communion. In contrast, the profound inclusivity of Holy Communion can help people understand that all are equal before Christ, and everyone deserves to participate in Holy Communion, accept salvation, and participate in fellowship with Christ. The church needs further education to understand Holy Communion as welcoming of everyone to encounter Christ in salvific faith and the truth that they are accepted as they are.</p> 2023-12-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Debbie Tohatta Jesus, Eunuch, and Holiness 2023-09-20T01:28:13+00:00 Vika Rahelia Ihan Martoyo <p>This article presents several views related to the interpretation of “eunuch” in Matthew 19:12. We find that alternative interpretations allow for inclusive gender variations when translating from the original language of this verse. Notably, this would include understanding the status of a eunuch, who is unable to marry or bear children. This condition could be natural from birth, inflicted by another individual, or chosen voluntarily for service or the Kingdom of God. Although the notion of “unmanliness” was considered shameful and disrespectful at the time, it was met with valorization by Jesus. Like most verses open to interpretation, this scripture has led to multiple interpretations from various perspectives. However, a common thread in Jesus’ acknowledgment of the eunuch condition is evident, and we note that only in Matthew is the natural condition of a eunuch mentioned, namely, the condition of being a eunuch from birth or the mother’s womb. Although the term “eunuch” is typically used for men who have been castrated, either voluntarily or due to external factors, reference to a natural eunuch plainly includes what we now recognize as individuals with genetic anomalies, a fact that necessitates new identifications under intersex variations.</p> 2023-12-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Vika Rahelia, Ihan Martoyo Teologi Sahala 2023-09-27T13:26:35+00:00 Elia Tambunan <p>A book review of <em>Teologi Sahala.</em></p> 2023-12-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Elia Tambunan The Crucifixion of Jesus: Torture, Sexual Abuse, and Scandal of the Cross 2023-11-22T15:07:52+00:00 Fang Fang Chandra <p>A book review of <em>The Crucifixion of Jesus: Torture, Sexual Abuse, and Scandal of the Cross</em>.</p> 2023-12-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Fang Fang Chandra