Dialektika Teologi dari Perspektif Herman Bavinck dengan Pemikiran Ekonomi Marxisme


  • Rinto Pangaribuan Sekolah Tinggi Filsafat Teologi Jakarta




Bavinck, economy, Marx, Marxism, praxis, theology


The position of a Weberian social theory strongly correlates capitalism with Calvinism. As such, one might expect Reformed (Calvinist) theology to stand in principled opposition to Marxist ideology. Using comparative literary method, this study assesses such a Weberian thesis by placing Calvinism and Marxism in dialectical relation. Modeling a Calvinistic theological perspective, the intellectual and political oeuvre of Herman Bavinck presents an ostensible rejection of Marxism. Meanwhile, this paper also considers the analytical tradition represented by Karl Marx, whose thinking centers economic productivity amid a radical reading of human history. Presenting a theoretical contrast, Bavinck grounds his theological method on revelation, while Marx relies on the material conditions of economic activity to scaffold his philosophical thought. Despite considerable methodological and epistemological differences, however, the theoretical groundings and approaches of both Bavinck and Marx may comprise a point of synthesis within the realm of practical action, or praxis. In doing so, Bavinck’s Reformed commitments can frame an orientation to Marxian emancipatory praxis, whereas Marx’s critical theorization can offer practical concreteness to a Bavinckian theology. A collaborative-complementary resolution to the apparent ideological contradiction is, therefore, put forward on the basis of praxis.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Rinto Pangaribuan, Sekolah Tinggi Filsafat Teologi Jakarta

Rinto Pangaribuan is a graduate student at Sekolah Tinggi Filsafat Theologi Jakarta. He graduated from Sekolah Tinggi Teologi Bandung in 2015 and has research interests on issues related to theology and economy-politics. 


Aernie, Jeffrey W. “Participation in Christ: An Analysis of Pauline Soteriology.” Horizons in Biblical Theology. Vol. 37, No. 1 (2015): 50-68. https://doi.org/10.1163/18712207-12341294.

Agamben, Giorgio. The Kingdom and the Glory: For a Theological Genealogy of Economy and Government (Homo Sacer II, 2). Trans., Lorenzo Chiesa and Matteo Mandarini. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2011.

Apriano, Alvian. “Siapa Yang Benar? ‘Tafsir Misional atas Imamat 19:15 untuk Mengatasi Masalah Buruh Migran Indonesia “Ilegal” di Malaysia.’” SOLA GRATIA: Jurnal Teologi Biblika dan Praktik. Vol. 2, No. 1 (2021). https://doi.org/10.47596/sg.v2i1.149.

Bavinck, Herman. Christian Worldview. Eds., Nathaniel Gray Sutanto, James Eglinton, and Cory C. Brock. Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2019.

______. Dogmatika Reformed, Jilid 1: Prolegomena. Terj., Ichwe G. Indra dan Irwan Tjulianto. Surabaya: Penerbit Momentum, 2011.

______. Essays on Religion, Science, and Society. Ed., John Bolt. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2008.

______. Reformed Dogmatics: Abridged in One Volume. Ed., John Bolt. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Publishing Group, 2011.

______. Reformed Dogmatics Vol. 1. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2003.

______. Reformed Ethics. Ed., John Bolt. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Publishing Group, 2019.

______. The Certainty of Faith. Ontario: Paideia/Premier, 1980.

Bolt, John. Bavinck on the Christian Life. Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2015.

Brock, Cory, and Nathaniel Gray Sutanto. “Herman Bavinck’s Reformed Eclecticism: On Catholicity, Consciousness and Theological Epistemology.” Scottish Journal of Theology. Vol. 70, No. 3 (2017): 310-332. https://doi.org/10.1017/S003693061700031X.

Budijanto, Oki Wahju. “Upah Layak bagi Pekerja/Buruh dalam Perspektif Hukum dan HAM.” Jurnal Penelitian Hukum DE JURE. Vol. 17, No. 3 (2017): 395-412.

Collier, Andrew. “Socialism and the Right to Property: Marx and Chesterton.” Journal of Critical Realism. Vol. 19, No. 3 (2020): 228-234.

Dean, Mitchell. “Office and Agamben’s Genealogy of Economy and Government.” European Journal of Cultural and Political Sociology. Vol. 4, No. 2 (2017): 200-222. https://doi.org/10.1080/23254823.2017.1300542.

Dinar, Muhammad, dan Muhammad Hasan. Pengantar Ekonomi: Teori dan Aplikasinya. Makassar: CV. Nur Lina dan Pustaka Taman Ilmu, 2018.

Engels, Frederick. Marx & Engels Collected Works (Vol. 25: Engels: Anti-Dühring, Dialectics of Nature). Trans., Emile Burns and Clemens Dutt. N.p.: International Publishers, 1987.

Fernbach, David. Karl Marx Muda hingga Dewasa: Revolusi 1848 dan Perkembangan Pemikiran Karl Marx. Ed., Ismantoro Dwi Yuwono. Yogyakarta: Penerbit Independen, 2019.

Fine, Ben, and Alfredo Saad-Filho. “Marx 200: The Abiding Relevance of the Labour Theory of Value.” Review of Political Economy. Vol. 30, No. 3 (2018): 339-354. https://doi.org/10.1080/09538259.2018.1424068.

Fromm, Erich. Marx’s Concept of Man. Trans., T. B. Bottomore. London: Continuum, 2004.

Gregor, A. James. “The First Marxist and Fascist Economic Strategies in Comparative Perspective.” Journal of Political Ideologies. Vol. 23, No. 1 (2018): 80-96. https://doi.org/10.1080/13569317.2017.1407479.

Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Fredrich. The Phenomenology of Spirit. Eds., Terry Pinkard and Michael Baur. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018.

_______. Encyclopaedia of The Philosophical Sciences in Basic Outline. Part I, Science of Logic. Eds., Klaus Brinkmann and Daniel O. Dahlstrom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

Henley, Andrew. “Does Religion Influence Entrepreneurial Behaviour?” International Small Business Journal: Researching Entrepreneurship. Vol. 35, No. 5 (2017): 597-617. https://doi.org/10.1177/0266242616656748.

Hutagalung, Novriana Gloria. “Holy Grandeur Enough for All.” GEMA TEOLOGIKA. Vol. 2, No. 2 (2017): 195-212. https://doi.org/10.21460/gema.2017.22.317.

Jonar, Radius Aditya. “Partisipasi dan Keadilan: Studi Teologis dalam Hubungan Manusia dan Tanah.” SOLA GRATIA: Jurnal Teologi Biblika dan Praktika. Vol. 1, No. 1 (2020). https://doi.org/10.47596/solagratia.v1i1.104.

Kennedy, Simon P. “Abraham Kuyper: Calvinist Anti-Revolutionary Politician and Political Thinker.” Australian Journal of Politics & History. Vol. 61, No. 2 (2015): 169-183. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajph.12099.

Lü Shirong. “Marx’s Thoughts on Economic Globalization.” Social Sciences in China. Vol. 37, No. 2 (2016): 5-19. https://doi.org/10.1080/02529203.2016.1162008.

Lubin-Levy, Joshua, and Aliza Shvarts. “Living Labor: Marxism and Performance Studies.” Women & Performance: A Journal of Feminist Theory. Vol. 26, No. 2-3 (2016): 115-121. https://doi.org/10.1080/0740770X.2016.1269504.

Malthus, Thomas. An Essay on the Principle of Population. London: Penguin Classics, 1983.

Mandel, Ernest. An Introduction to Marxist Economic Theory. Chippendale, Australia: Resistance Books, 2002.

Martin, Michelle E. “Philosophical and Religious Influences on Social Welfare Policy in the United States: The Ongoing Effect of Reformed Theology and Social Darwinism on Attitudes toward the Poor and Social Welfare Policy and Practice.” Journal of Social Work. Vol. 12, No. 1 (2012): 51-64. https://doi.org/10.1177/1468017310380088.

Marx, Karl. Kapital Buku I: Sebuah Kritik Ekonomi. Jakarta: Hasta Mitra, 2007.

_______. Marx & Engels Collected Works Vol. 3. N.p.: Lawrence & Wishart, 1975.

Marx, Karl, dan Frederick Engels. Ideologi Jerman: Jilid 1 - Feuerbach. Terj., Naasikhul Mutamanna. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Nusantara, 2013.

_______. Manifesto Partai Komunis. ECONARCH Institute: Electronic Classics Series, 2009.

Nelson, Robert H. “Is Max Weber Newly Relevant?: The Protestant-Catholic Divide in Europe Today.” Finnish Journal of Theology. Vol. 5 (2012).

Palermo, Giulio. “Power: A Marxist View.” Cambridge Journal of Economics. Vol. 43, No. 5 (2019): 1353-1375.

Pham, Kien Thi. “Karl Marx’s Theory of the Productive Forces in the Present Fourth Industrial Revolution.” Journal of Social Studies Education Research. Vol. 12, No. 3 (2021): 101-119.

Polanyi, Michael. Science, Faith, and Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1946.

Quinn, Kevin. “Knowledge and Humanity: The History of Economic Thought as a Refined Liberal Art.” Econ Journal Watch. Vol. 18, No. 1 (2021): 156-163.

Shannon, Nathan Daniel. “Ontology and Revelation in Bavinck’s Stone Lectures.” Scottish Journal of Theology. Vol. 73, No. 2 (2020): 112-125.

Suryajaya, Martin. Asal-Usul Kekayaan: Sejarah Teori Nilai dalam Ilmu Ekonomi dari Aristoteles sarnpai Amartya Sen. Yogyakarta: Resist Book, 2013.

Sutanto, Nathaniel Gray. God and Knowledge: Herman Bavinck’s Theological Epistemology. London: T&T Clark, 2020.

Uhlmann, Eric Luis, and Jeffrey Sanchez-Burks. “The Implicit Legacy of American Protestantism.” Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. Vol. 45, No. 6 (2014): 992-1006. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022114527344.

Un, Antonius Steven. “Calvinisme dan Ilmu Pengetahuan: Suatu Tinjauan Filosofis terhadap Pemikiran Abraham Kuyper.” Societas Dei: Jurnal Agama dan Masyarakat. Vol. 3, No. 1 (2017): 35-54. https://doi.org/10.33550/sd.v3i1.29.

Weber, Max. Etika Protestan dan Semangat Kapitalisme. Terj., Yusup Priyasudiarja. Yogyakarta: Jejak, 2007.

Wilczynski, Jozef. An Encyclopedic Dictionary of Marxism, Socialism and Communism. London: The Macmillan Press Ltd, 1981.

Zulfikar, Yavuz Fahir. “Do Muslims Believe More in Protestant Work Ethic than Christians? Comparison of People with Different Religious Background Living in the US.” Journal of Business Ethics. Vol. 105, No. 4 (2012): 489-502. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-011-0981-z.



How to Cite

Pangaribuan, R. (2022). Dialektika Teologi dari Perspektif Herman Bavinck dengan Pemikiran Ekonomi Marxisme . Indonesian Journal of Theology, 10(1), 108-135. https://doi.org/10.46567/ijt.v10i1.240