Imago Dei

Sebuah Upaya Membaca Alkitab Sebagai Perempuan Indonesia Dalam Konteks Perdagangan Orang di Nusa Tenggara Timur




Bible, colonialism, patriacrhy, interpretation, human trafficking, female victims, imago Dei, community, hospitality


This paper examines the close connection between the domain of biblical interpretation and the communal sphere, which is comprised of living data that serves as starting point for scriptural interpretation. The yield of such interpretations serves as an important contribution for a church seeking proactively to address and resolve various urgent concerns in the current context. This essay considers one such crisis needing to be addressed: the issue of human trafficking in East Nusa Tenggara, with specific regard to how female victims of human trafficking have been torn apart by the variegated forms of oppression they have undergone. By looking to Genesis 1:26-27, with its emphasis on the concept of imago Dei, this paper demonstrates just how useful is a postcolonial approach to reading scripture, namely in the case of female victims who are reconsidering the manner in which they regard and understand themselves; no less than are men, women too are created in the image of God and, therefore, have in the sight of God an equality and parity of status with men. Equality and parity become a strong foundation upon which to resist every effort to debase the dignity and value of women. Furthermore, this article highlights the role of the community, namely as an agential collective set to oppose any attempt to rob fellow human beings of their claim, namely as living persons created according to God’s image.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Ira D. Mangililo, Universitas Kristen Satya Wacana

Ira Desiawanti Mangililo, S.Si., MABL, Th.M., Ph.D., is an ordained minister at Gereja Masehi Injili di Timor. She is currently a faculty member at Universitas Kristen Satya Wacana, Fakultas Teologi. She teaches Biblical Hebrews and Greeks, and the Old Testament. Her research interest is the Feminist/Postcolonial Feminist Hermeneutics to Hebrew Scriptures.


Ashcroft, Bill, Gareth Griffiths, and Hellen Tiffin. Key Concepts in Post-Colonial Studies. London: Routledge, 1998.

Bhabha, Homi K. The Location of Culture. London: Routledge, 2004.

Bray, Gerald. “The Significant of God’s Image in Man.” Tyndale Bulletin, Vol. 42, Ed. 2 (1991): 195–225.

Brown, F., S. R. Driver, and C.A. Briggs. Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament: With an Appendix containing the Biblical Aramaic. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976.

Conn, H. M. “Feminist Theology.” In New Dictionary of Theology, Sinclair D. Ferguson and David F. Wright, eds. Leicester: InterVarsity Press, 1988.

Crowell, Bradley L. “Postcolonial Studies and Hebrew Bible.” Currents in Biblical Research, Vol. 7, No. 2 (2009): 217–244.

Daly, Mary. Beyond God the Father: Toward a Philosophy of Women’s Liberation. Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1973.

Dube, Musa W. “Toward A Post-colonial Feminist Interpretation of the Bible.” Semeia, Vol. 78, 1997.

_______. Postcolonial Feminist Interpretation of the Bible. St. Louise, MO: Chalice Press, 2000.

Fuchs, Esther. Sexual Politics in the Biblical Narrative: Reading the Hebrew Bible as a Woman. London: Sheffield Academic Press, 2000.

Garr, W. Randall. In His Own Image and Likeness: Humanity, Divinity, and Monotheism. Leiden: Brill, 2003.

Gillen, Paul, and Devleena Ghosh. Colonialism and Modernity. Sydney: UNSW Press, 2007.

Herzfeld, Noreen. “Creating in Our Own Image: Artificial Intelligence and the Image of God.” Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science, Vol. 37, Ed. 2 (2003): 303–316.

Irawati, Diah. “Pekerja Rumah Tangga di antara Paradoks Politik Gender dan Politik Developmentalisme: Studi Kasus dari Indonesia Era Orde Baru.” Jurnal Perempuan, Vol. 22, No. 3 (2017).

Isherwood, Lisa, and Elizabeth Stuart. Introducing Body Theology. Sheffiled: Sheffield Academic Press, 1998.

Johnson, Elizabeth. “Naming God She: The Theological Implication.” Boardman Lecture XXXVII (Centennial Lecture), The University of Pennsylvania, October 19, 2000.

Karsiwen. “Perkembangan Buruh Migran Indonesia dan Kondisinya di Negara Penempatan.” Dalam Menolak Diam: Gereja Melawan Perdagangan Orang. Mery Kolimon, et. al., eds. Jakarta: BPK Gunung Mulia, 2018.

Kim, Uriah Y. “Postcolonial Criticism: Who is the Other in the Book of Judges.” In Judges & Method: New Approaches in Biblical Studies. Ed., Gale A. Yee. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 2007.

Kolimon, Mery. “Kerentanan dan Luka, Perlawanan dan Penyembuhan: Refleksi Teologis tentang Perdagangan Orang di Wilayah Pelayanan Gereja Masehi Injili di Timor (GMIT).” In Menolak Diam: Gereja Melawan Perdagangan Orang. Eds., Mery Kolimon, et. al. Jakarta: BPK Gunung Mulia, 2018.

Kyung, Chung Hyun. Struggle to Be the Sun Again: Introducing Asian Women's Theology. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1990.

Van Leeuwen, Raymond C. “Form, Image.” In The New International Dictionary of Old Testament Theology and Exegesis. Willem Van Gemeren, ed. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1997.

McFague, Sallie. Metaphorical Theology: Models of God in Religious Language. London: Fortress Press, 1983.

Middleton, J. Richard. “The Liberating Image? Interpreting the Imago Dei in Context.” In Christian Scholars Review, Vol. 24, No. 1 (1994).

Morschauser, Scott N. “Created in the Image of God: the Ancient Near Eastern Background of the Imago Dei.” Theology Matters, Vol. 3, No. 6 (1997).

Peacoc, Philip Vinod. “The Image of God for Today: Some Insights on the Imago Dei.” In Created in God’s Image: From Hegemony to Partnership. Eds., Patricia Sheerattan-Bisnauth and Philip Vinod Peacock. Geneva: World Communion of Reformed Churches, 2010.

Pobee, John S. “Bible Study in Africa: A Passover of Language.” Semeia, Vol. 73 (1996).

Power, Kim. Veiled Desire: Augustine’s Writing on Women. London: Darton, Longman and Todd, 1995.

Pusparani, Safira Prabawidya dan Ani Widyani Soetjipto. “Perempuan dan Upaya Pemberdayaan Diri: Studi Kasus terhadap Enam Perempuan Pekerja Rumah Tangga Migran Indonesia.” Jurnal Perempuan, Vol. 22, No. 3 (2017).

Ruether, Rosemary Radford. “Feminist Critique and Re-visioning of God-Language.” Theological Trends (2), Way 27 (1987), 132–143.

Samuel, Simon. A Postcolonial Reading of Mark’s Story of Jesus. New York: T & T Clark, 2007.

Schüssler-Fiorenza, Elisabeth. Rhetoric and Ethic: The Politics of Biblical Studies. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 1999.

Segovia, Fernando F. Decolonizing Biblical Studies: A View from the Margin. Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books, 2000.

Sugirtharajah, R.S. The Bible and the Third World: Precolonial, Colonial and Postcolonial Encounters. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

Tolbert, M.A. “Defining the Problem: The Bible and Feminist Hermeneutics.” Semeia, Vol. 28 (1983).

Tyagi, Ritu. “Understanding Postcolonial Feminism in Relation with Postcolonial and Feminist Theories.” International Journal of Language and Linguistics, Vol. 1, No. 2 (2014).

Wenham, Gordon J. Genesis 1-15. Word Biblical Commentary. Waco, TX: Word, 1987.

Wetangterah, Liliya F. K. “Kerentanan Masyarakat Nusa Tenggara Timur (NTT) Menjadi Korban Perdagangan Orang dengan Modus Pekerja Migran Indonesia.” Dalam Menolak Diam: Gereja Melawan Perdagangan Orang. Eds., Mery Kolimon, et. al. Jakarta: BPK Gunung Mulia, 2018.

Wiesel, Elie. Messengers of God: Biblical Portraits and Legends. New York: Summit, 1976.


2017-12-30 — Updated on 2017-12-30

How to Cite

Mangililo, I. D. (2017). Imago Dei: Sebuah Upaya Membaca Alkitab Sebagai Perempuan Indonesia Dalam Konteks Perdagangan Orang di Nusa Tenggara Timur. Indonesian Journal of Theology, 5(2), 147-177.